An Informational Chart I

This post you may consider a “quick thought”, but it is more of an informational posting. To understand political history of the United States, I think it is valuable to know where the power was during which eras. The chart I am posting shows the breakdown of Democrat and Republican control of the legislative and executive branches since 1857. It is particularly stunning to examine the period of 1933-1995: The Democrats controlled the House for all but four years, and the Senate for all but ten years. The ideological breakdowns of the Congresses are a bit more complex than party affiliations suggest, but the Republican Party for quite the time was an underdog. The opposite situation exists in the House today, with Republicans controlling the chamber for all but four years since 1995.

* – The Senate was evenly split between Republicans and Democrats until June 6, 2001, when Sen. Jim Jeffords (R-Vt.) switched affiliation to Independent and caucused with the Democrats, giving them the majority until the end of term. The majority from January 3-June 6 thus hinged on the tie-breaking vote of the Vice President. Thus, Democrats held control for the majority of the session.

Congress House Senate  Years President
35 DEM DEM 1857-59 Buchanan (DEM)
36 GOP DEM 1859-61 Buchanan (DEM)
37 GOP GOP 1861-63 Lincoln (GOP)
38 GOP GOP 1863-65 Lincoln (GOP)
39 GOP GOP 1865-67 Lincoln/Johnson (UNION)
40 GOP GOP 1867-69 Johnson (DEM)
41 GOP GOP 1869-71 Grant (GOP)
42 GOP GOP 1871-73 Grant (GOP)
43 GOP GOP 1873-75 Grant (GOP)
44 DEM GOP 1875-77 Grant (GOP)
45 DEM GOP 1877-79 Hayes (GOP)
46 DEM DEM 1879-81 Hayes (GOP)
47 GOP DEM 1881-83 Garfield/Arthur (GOP)
48 DEM GOP 1883-85 Arthur (GOP)
49 DEM GOP 1885-87 Cleveland (DEM)
50 DEM GOP 1887-89 Cleveland (DEM)
51 GOP GOP 1889-91 Harrison (GOP)
52 DEM GOP 1891-93 Harrison (GOP)
53 DEM DEM 1893-95 Cleveland (DEM)
54 GOP GOP 1895-97 Cleveland (DEM)
55 GOP GOP 1897-99 McKinley (GOP)
56 GOP GOP 1899-1901 McKinley (GOP)
57 GOP GOP 1901-03 McKinley/Roosevelt (GOP)
58 GOP GOP 1903-05 Roosevelt (GOP)
59 GOP GOP 1905-07 Roosevelt (GOP)
60 GOP GOP 1907-09 Roosevelt (GOP)
61 GOP GOP 1909-11 Taft (GOP)
62 DEM GOP 1911-13 Taft (GOP)
63 DEM DEM 1913-15 Wilson (DEM)
64 DEM DEM 1915-17 Wilson (DEM)
65 DEM DEM 1917-19 Wilson (DEM)
66 GOP GOP 1919-21 Wilson (DEM)
67 GOP GOP 1921-23 Harding (GOP)
68 GOP GOP 1923-25 Harding/Coolidge (GOP)
69 GOP GOP 1925-27 Coolidge (GOP)
70 GOP GOP 1927-29 Coolidge (GOP)
71 GOP GOP 1929-31 Hoover (GOP)
72 DEM GOP 1931-33 Hoover (GOP)
73 DEM DEM 1933-35 Roosevelt (DEM)
74 DEM DEM 1935-37 Roosevelt (DEM)
75 DEM DEM 1937-39 Roosevelt (DEM)
76 DEM DEM 1939-41 Roosevelt (DEM)
77 DEM DEM 1941-43 Roosevelt (DEM)
78 DEM DEM 1943-45 Roosevelt (DEM)
79 DEM DEM 1945-47 Roosevelt/Truman (DEM)
80 GOP GOP 1947-49 Truman (DEM)
81 DEM DEM 1949-51 Truman (DEM)
82 DEM DEM 1951-53 Truman (DEM)
83 GOP GOP 1953-55 Eisenhower (GOP)
84 DEM DEM 1955-57 Eisenhower (GOP)
85 DEM DEM 1957-59 Eisenhower (GOP)
86 DEM DEM 1959-61 Eisenhower (GOP)
87 DEM DEM 1961-63 Kennedy (DEM)
88 DEM DEM 1963-65 Kennedy/Johnson (DEM)
89 DEM DEM 1965-67 Johnson (DEM)
90 DEM DEM 1967-69 Johnson (DEM)
91 DEM DEM 1969-71 Nixon (GOP)
92 DEM DEM 1971-73 Nixon (GOP)
93 DEM DEM 1973-75 Nixon/Ford (GOP)
94 DEM DEM 1975-77 Ford (GOP)
95 DEM DEM 1977-79 Carter (DEM)
96 DEM DEM 1979-81 Carter (DEM)
97 DEM GOP 1981-83 Reagan (GOP)
98 DEM GOP 1983-85 Reagan (GOP)
99 DEM GOP 1985-87 Reagan (GOP)
100 DEM DEM 1987-89 Reagan (GOP)
101 DEM DEM 1989-91 Bush, G.H.W. (GOP)
102 DEM DEM 1991-93 Bush, G.H.W. (GOP)
103 DEM DEM 1993-95 Clinton (DEM)
104 GOP GOP 1995-97 Clinton (DEM)
105 GOP GOP 1997-99 Clinton (DEM)
106 GOP GOP 1999-2001 Clinton (DEM)
107 GOP DEM* 2001-03 Bush, G.W. (GOP)
108 GOP GOP 2003-05 Bush, G.W. (GOP)
109 GOP GOP 2005-07 Bush, G.W. (GOP)
110 DEM DEM 2007-09 Bush, G.W. (GOP)
111 DEM DEM 2009-11 Obama (DEM)
112 GOP DEM 2011-13 Obama (DEM)
113 GOP DEM 2013-15 Obama (DEM)
114 GOP GOP 2015-17 Obama (DEM)
115 GOP GOP 2017-19 Trump (GOP)

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